In the summer ofarmy officers apparently sympathetic to Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser overthrew the regime in Iraq.
But its associate director for policy and records, Dr David Sherman, told the BBC: "It is not surprising to me that [the US and UK] would be very concerned about the security of the communications of those West European countries - [and] want to know what systems they might be using so that the now sensitive communications of the Nato alliance are not vulnerable to penetration by the Soviet Union. However, Hagelin went on, according to the memo, to express his gratitude to the NSA for looklng we had done and were continuing to do for various member of his family".
In some cases, customers appear to have been deceived. The company now "enjoys an excellent reputation with all its customers", and the algorithms used in its modern products gave customers exclusive control, he told the BBC.
The deal also appears to have involved the NSA itself writing "brochures", instruction manuals for the CX, to ensure "proper use". Related Topics. Crypto AG chief executive, Giulliano Otth refused to comment on the "intense private dialogue on various personal and professional subjects" that had grown mqn of the friendship between Friedman and Hagelin in the s.
Historian Stephen Budiansky says: "There was a certain degree of deception going on of the customers who were buying [machines] and thinking bbuessness were getting something the same as what Hagelin was selling everywhere when in fact it was a watered-down version. Historian Buessnesw Easter, of King's College, London, says intelligence from decrypted Egyptian communications was vital in Britain being able to rapidly deploy troops to neighbouring Jordan to forestall a potential follow-up coup against a British ally.
The relationship also involved not selling machines such as the CX, a more advanced version of the C - to certain countries. Not even Crypto AG has access," he said.
Rather, it seems the detailed knowledge of the machines and their operations may have allowed code-breakers to cut the time needed to decrypt messages from the impossible to the possible. In one document, Hagelin hints to Friedman he is going to be able "to supply certain customers" with a specific machine which, Friedman notes, is of course "easier to solve than the new models". This included intervening to ensure a son-in-law had his active duty status in the US Air Force retained and a cousin of Hagelin's wife seemingly being employed at the NSA.
This knowledge can allow smart code breakers to look for weaknesses and use a combination of maths and computing to work through permutations to find a solution. In a statement, a GCHQ spokesman said the agency "does not comment on its operational activities and neither confirms nor denies the accuracy of the specific inferences that have been drawn from the document you are discussing".
But there is no evidence for this in the documents although some parts remain redacted.
The NSA also declined to comment on the specific conclusions. The provision of technical details "is a revelation of the first order," says Paul Reuvers, an engineer who runs the Crypto Museum website.
One memo indicates Crypto AG was providing different customers with encryption machines of different strengths at the behest of Nato and that "the different brochures are distinguishable only by 'secret lolking printed thereon". Full text of differently redacted version The relationship, initially referred to as a "gentleman's agreement", included Hagelin keeping the NSA and GCHQ informed about the technical specifications of different machines and which countries were buying which ones.
One interpretation is these were written so certain countries could use the machines securely - buessjess in others, they were set up so the of possible permutations was small enough for the NSA to crack. It is something you would not normally do because the integrity and secrecy of your own customer is mandatory in this business.